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Land Surveying: Various Aspects of the World's Second Oldest Profession

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Land surveying is defined as a method of scientifically and/or legally determining the location of points on the earth’s surface. It also includes establishing the distance between those points and the angles created by them. Often referred to as the world’s second-oldest profession, land surveying integrates elements of engineering, geometry, law, math, and physics. Legally, land surveying determines boundaries. Furthermore, it establishes where property lines begin and where they end. The accuracy of land boundaries depends on a society’s particular regard for the state, county, city, and private property line borders. (1)
Modern-day land surveyors use Global Positioning Systems (GPS) for accurate point positioning. GPS works through satellites that send signals to receivers kept on surveyors’ tripods. The data is then downloaded into computer software, allowing the surveyor to know the exact position of a point within the time span of a few minutes. (2) There are several different…

Menstruation In Tudor Times

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It has been happening to women since the dawn of time and yet, during the Tudor age, society rarely spoke of it. Known as the monthly curse, coming of age, or period, menstruation has been referred to, across the ages, by many different terms. During this time in history, Christianity preached that a woman’s period existed as a punishment from God for Eve’s temptation in the Garden of Eden. Leviticus stated that a woman who menstruates is impure and unclean. As a result, the Church prohibited painkillers for menstrual pain relief, as women supposedly deserved to suffer the cramps and pains given to them by God. Additionally, the Church also declared that women should refrain from receiving Holy Communion during this bloody time. The Church expected women to do nothing but suffer during their “time of the month”.

Henry VIII’s first wife, Catherine of Aragon, suffered from inconsistent periods throughout her life. As a result, this fact combined with her apparent inability to deliver th…

Deep Inside I Always Wanted Children

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Deep inside I always thought I wanted children…probably… eventually…possibly. When I graduated from college in the late 1990s, friends started having children while I remained happily unencumbered. Even after I married, our family planning consisted of not having children right away. And when I reached my late thirties–a time when many childless women become desperate for motherhood-I nevertheless did not feel like I was missing out on anything. 

Today, more and more women are choosing not to have children, and while the stigma has not entirely lifted, it is not entirely what it used to be, either. Some say the urge to have children is partially biological. If so, then what does that say about women who do not want to have children? I meet women, both older and younger, who struggle with the contemplation of parenthood. Should they try to have a child anyway, and if they do not, will they regret it later? Furthermore, do they actually want a child to fulfill their own needs, or do they…

What In The World Is Going On In Dubai?

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Princess Haya of Jordan, for many, is a feminist icon. She, along with her sister-in-law Queen Rania of Jordan, and her step-mother, Queen Noor of Jordan, is often referred to as one of “the Supermodel Queens of the Middle East.” The Princess’ 2004 marriage to the ruler of Dubai has been portrayed to the public as a modern-day fairy tale-until now. On August 4th, 2019, the Princess appeared in court requesting a “forced marriage protection order,” presumably on behalf of her daughter, and a “non-molestation order,” on behalf of herself. (1) The following day, news sources around the world proclaimed that Princess Haya and her children had barely escaped from Dubai with their lives, and now remain in hiding, seeking legal protection from the British government. Born to King Hussein and Queen Alia of Jordan in 1974, Princess Haya has lived in the royal spotlight since the day of her birth. Following the death of her mother in a tragic helicopter crash, the American-born Queen Noor of Jor…

Why Are Females In Professional Soccer Paid Less Than Their Male Counterparts?

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Under the U.S soccer team’s new collective bargaining agreement, the members of the women’s team are paid a guaranteed salary of $100,000 per player. This salary is the same, whether they win or lose, play or don’t play. In contrast, their male counterparts are paid $5,000 per game played, whether they win or lose. However, they must play. If they don’t play, they don’t get paid. For example, if both teams lost every game in a season (there are twenty games), and every male player played every game (this is not required for the females), the players would make identical amounts-$100,000 a season. In contrast to the women, the men are eligible for bonuses paid based on how many games they played, and how many games they won. Overall, this leads to a pay discrepancy of about 11% in favor of the men. However, the greater the risk, the greater the reward. In essence, the women have traded the opportunity to make 11% more, for the guarantee of being paid $100,000. Is this such a bad trade…

An American Duchess, The Fourth Of July, And Living Between Two Realms

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HRH Meghan, the Duchess of Sussex, represents an individual existing between two realms. Becoming a member of the British royal family is essentially one of the most British things a person can do. On the other hand, being born in America is also, arguably, one of the most American things a person can do. This then begs the question-what should an American member of the British royal family do when the Fourth of July appears on the calendar? Well, the Duchess of Sussex celebrated July 4th by supporting her American friend, Serena Williams, at Wimbledon. To many, this seemed an entirely appropriate way to spend this most American day, as Her Royal Highness straddles life as both a “former colonist” and a royal.
Like many people across the United States, Her Royal Highness spent the Fourth of July holiday among friends. Lindsey Roth and Genevieve Hills, both friends of the Duchess from Northwestern University, sat in the Royal box at Wimbledon beside her. Some have speculated that the…

The Border, Immigrants, and Humanity

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As an American, I am well aware of the issues with immigrants and the border. I have heard on the news every day, recently, that concentration camps exist there. As I am from German ancestry, and a person, I am well aware that concentration camps are unacceptable and inhumane, bringing misery to humanity. I am also aware that the Germans perpetrated a huge disservice to mankind, and as a result, lost the right to have a standing army. Concentration camps are wrong.
As an American, I am aware that native Americans existed on the American continent long before we did. As a result, I am also aware of the argument that they, therefore, have more of a right to this continent than we do, as we are simply the descendants of European immigrants. In 1776, the American colonies of Great Britain broke away from the motherland and declared a new country. Subsequently, we became the United States of America. To some, we represented freedom fighters; to others, we represented usurpers of land from a…